The shooter fails to strike one of their own object balls (or the 8 ball, if all of said object balls are already pocketed) with the cue ball, before other balls (if any) are contacted by the cue ball. This excludes "split" shots, where the cue ball strikes one of the shooter's and one of the opponent's object balls simultaneously.
No ball comes into contact with a cushion or is pocketed, after legal cue ball contact with the (first) object ball (or 8 ball, if shooting for the 8).
If an attempt is made to pocket a ball, and the ball hits the pocket, bounces out and lands on the ground, the ball is placed in the pocket and the game continues.
The shooter does not have at least one foot on the floor (this requirement may be waived if the shooter has a relevant disability, or the venue has not provided a mechanical bridge).
The cue ball is pocketed.
The cue ball is shot before all balls have come to a complete stop from the previous shot.
The cue ball does not strike any ball.
The cue ball is struck more than once during a shot
The cue ball is jumped entirely or partially over an obstructing ball with an illegal jump shot that scoops under the cue ball.
The cue ball is clearly pushed (shoved slowly, rather than struck), with the cue tip remaining in contact with it more than momentarily.
The shooter touches the cue ball with something other than the tip of the cue.
The shooter touches any ball (with body, clothing or equipment), other than as necessary to move the cue ball when the player has ball-in-hand.
The shooter knocks a ball off the table.
The shooter has shot out-of-turn.
On the break shot, no balls are pocketed and fewer than four balls reach the cushions (in which case the incoming player can demand a re-rack and take the break or force the original breaker to re-break, or may take ball-in-hand behind the head string and shoot the balls as they lie)
if these fouls are made, the ball can be placed anywhere on the table to prevent a player from making a purposeful foul to disadvantage the other player.